Age 6 to 10 years old, called the GS Sullivan juvenile has, in his opinion, the special characteristics. At this age, there is a rapid development of the system of self to self. This allows the child to master the many safety provisions of the operations master the ways of liberation from anxiety on the basis of estimates of the expected effects of the sanctions and the violation or disregard bans.
Accordingly, by using the syntax of experience in juvenile age is conscious regulation of behavior aimed at overcoming anxiety. That anxiety is one of the main “landmarks” to familiarize the student with the primary orientation in the social world.
So, it may be noted that in Western psychology studies related to the specifics of children’s fears were mainly in the areas of psychoanalysis. One of the hallmarks of this approach is the tendency of authors to find out “psychological benefit” of children’s fear, it’s natural for the mind as well as to distinguish between normal and pathological development in the field of children’s fear.
In the study of national psychology of fear in children was conducted in the framework of the concept of neurosis and neurotic personality development. In this case, the authors have created their own concept of holistic child’s fear, and in the framework of its tasks have made a number of significant observations related to the specifics of children’s fear.
So, NS Zhukovskaja writes about anxiety disorders as a group reactive (psychogenic) states leading syndrome fears. VA Gurieva highlights anxiety neurosis, developed from an acute affective-shock response and emerged gradually, under the influence of a traumatic situation. The first is characterized by panic-stricken, and the second – the fear of wearing the intrusive nature. TP Sim sleep the very high value of the surprise factor for the occurrence of childhood fears. She states that any phenomenon, if it was unexpected, it may be a source of fear.
The foregoing and other authors of this trend, speaking about children’s fears, primarily describes the clinical picture of “anxiety neurosis”, its classification, with a small amount of space it ‘age. However, there are a number of domestic psychology researchers are paying more attention to fear in the early school years.
VI Garbuzov developed the concept of neurosis in children. By analyzing the specifics of children’s fears, he noted that for all the fears of a child is unconscious or perceivable fear of death. On the period of transition to preschool primary school age, he said that at this age the kid understands all the helplessness and the complexity of the world, at that age, he begins to think about death. The questions arise: “I’m not going to die?” “And you, mother, do not you die? ‘. The fear of death is natural for human beings. This fear – the root of all fears. The child may be afraid of Baba Yaga and the Wolf “another uncle,” fear of many objects have many different fears, but him is one thing – fear of death.
AI Zakharov saw fear in children as the main driving force of the neurotic personality development. Preschool age, in his opinion are instinctive fears, acting mainly in the form of a triad “dark-lonely-closed space.” In 5 – 7 years is the awareness of death as the cessation of child life. During the rapid surge in affective be “calm” when a child stops to ask “frightening” parents questions about death and fantasize about it. However, as the author notes, “we can finally” bury “the fear of death, he is transformed into a fear of the death of parents.” However, the social reality leads to the fact that in this age of the fore the fear of being not so not to fulfill the requirements of the child. This fear usually manifests itself in a particularly meaningful to the child situations (answer at the board, examinations, etc.). For children 7-11 years of age is a decrease and an increase in self-centeredness sociocentric orientation of the individual. Accordingly, the primary school age – an age when crossed instinctive and socially mediated fears. Instinctive, mainly emotional forms of fear – it is actually fear as affective perceived threat to life, while the social forms of fear are its intellectual processing, a kind of rationalization of fear. These two trends, crossing in the immediate objects of fear, generate whimsical mythological images fears. With a decrease in the real, but not objectively these “scary” fears (loneliness, darkness, etc.) and increasing objectively existing social fears (schools, grades, bad behavior, etc.) in primary school children a great place belongs to the so-called fantastic fears dark forces of magical creatures, dragons, aliens, robots, and other shapes that may appear in their dreams.